Domestic and industrial waste generation is increasing in line with global growth in consumption. In African countries today, waste management is a growing concern. A large proportion of waste could be recycled by the urban poor who could generate incomes while protecting the environment. Approaches that integrate public, private and community sectors to create local solutions would deliver most benefits while promoting sustainable solid waste management. The Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction Unit (PSDU) of the African Development Bank (ADB) commissioned this study to review municipal waste management options in African countries and to examine current waste management practices in the municipalities of Cairo (Egypt), Nairobi (Kenya), Accra (Ghana) and Cape Town (South Africa). The project's objective is to contribute to the improvement of municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems in Africa, to promote appropriate management policies on national, regional, local and sectoral levels in order to enable the integration of suitable management practices and to guide the African Development Bank's Task Managers in the design of waste management practices or in the integration of waste management concerns into sanitation or urban development projects.