Treatment and disposal of municipal, industrial and other solid waste produces significant amounts of methane (CH4) as well as biogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), and smaller amounts of nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO). CH4 produced at SWDS contributes approximately 3 to 4 percent to the annual global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (IPCC, 2001). In many industrialised countries, waste management has changed much over the last decade. Waste minimisation and recycling/reuse policies have been introduced to reduce the amount of waste generated, and increasingly, alternative waste management practices to solid waste disposal on land have been implemented to reduce the environmental impacts of waste management. Also, landfill gas recovery has become more common as a measure to reduce CH4 emissions from SWDS. Decomposition of organic material derived from biomass sources (e.g., crops, wood) is the primary source of CO2 released from waste. These CO2 emissions are not included in national totals, because the carbon is of biogenic origin and net emissions are accounted for under the AFOLU Sector. This chapter provides a Tier 1 version of the First Order of Decay method including a simple spreadsheet model with step-by-step guidance and improved default data. With this guidance, all countries should be able to implement the FOD method as will be required under the new enhanced transparency framework.
2006 IPCC Chapter 3 On Solid Waste Disposal