At a glance
Ivory Coast is a West African country of 322,463 kmÂ² bordered on the west by Liberia and Guinea, on the north by Mali and Burkina Faso and on the east by Ghana. The country is divided into two major geographical regions: a forest area in the south (48.2% of the surface area) and a savannah area in the north (51.8% of the surface area).
The country's population has grown to 22.7 million in 2014 (RGPH, 2014), with an average annual growth rate of 2.6% in 2014 (against 3.8% in 1975). This rapid population growth is the result of high natural growth and strong immigration from neighboring countries (24% of the population is non-Ivorian). This demographic dynamic has led to increasing pressure on the country's natural resources, especially in the forest zone.
The recent politico-military crisis (2002-2011) has had a very high economic and social impact on the country. The poverty rate was estimated at 46% in 2015 (INS 2015), ranking the country 172nd (out of 188) on the 2015 Human Development Index (HDI).
This socio-political situation has also seriously undermined ecosystem and environmental services. Indeed, significant and continuous deforestation, mainly caused by the transformation of forests into agricultural land, has increased considerably during this period (UNEP, 2015).
Since 2012, Cote d'Ivoire has started a new economic momentum, with a growth rate of 8.3% in 2014. The agricultural sector is the main engine of economic growth in the country: it employs more than two thirds of the working population and produces about 28% of its GDP and more than 50% of its export earnings. CÃ´te d'Ivoire is the world's largest producer and exporter of cocoa, which accounts for about one-third of all exports. Food-producing agriculture faces strong competition from cash crops such as cashew nuts, rubber, palm, coffee, cocoa, and cotton. Food crop farming remains largely itinerant in CÃ´te d'Ivoire. It is not uncommon for women, who are primarily responsible for food production, to walk several kilometers to reach their production site while village land remains available and unused, even in the southern part of the country, because it is often depleted or of too low quality.
Furthermore, analysis of energy consumption in CÃ´te d'Ivoire reveals that biomass accounts for 73% of total domestic energy consumption. About 87% of households use fuelwood or charcoal at a rate of 2 kg of charcoal or 4.6 kg of fuelwood per day (Ministry in charge of the Environment, 1997).
Despite a gas subsidy program by the Ivorian government, the diffusion of gas use is very heavy on the state budget and is relatively inefficient.
Consequently, wood is estimated to represent a significant annual harvest of around 9.7 to 15 million tonnes of wood equivalent (TEB) (KonÃ©, 1992; Ouattara, 2008), showing that the exploitation of forest resources for cooking purposes is a non-negligible cause and therefore a direct factor in forest degradation (CIRES, 2009; SEP-REDD+ CI, 2017).
All of these phenomena have led to an annual deforestation rate in the Ivorian forest of around 5.2%, which remains the highest in Sub-Saharan Africa. (CIRES, 2009), which corresponds to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of 31,178 T eq. CO2 in 2014 (BUR1, 2017).
This spectacular deforestation contributes to disrupting the rainfall regime, limits agricultural productivity, and thus creates a vicious circle of concern for the future of the agricultural sector that climate change will only aggravate (SEP-REDD+ CI, 2017).
Aware of the environmental challenges at the national level, the Government of CÃ´te d'Ivoire, through the Ministry in charge of the Environment (MINSEDD), has embarked on a vast program to improve environmental and climate governance.
In order to achieve the results of this program, the Government, through the Ministry in charge of the Environment (MINSEDD) and more specifically its Directorate in charge of the Fight Against Climate Change (DLCC), has expressed its interest in benefiting from the support of the Global Climate Change Alliance (GCCA+).
This present action to combat climate change through the promotion of intensive agroforestry systems falls more specifically under the second pillar of the GCCA+ dealing with technical and financial support for developing countries and regions most vulnerable to climate change.