Sector budget support for environment and natural resources in Rwanda

Sector budget support for environment and natural resources in Rwanda

At a glance

Completed programmes
Rwanda Natural Resources Authority, National Land Centre (Min. of Natural Resources)
Countries involved
Total budget
4,56 M€
GCCA priority area(s)
Effects of climate change on the region

Climate change is thought to be driving abnormal torrential downpours, flooding and changing weather patterns in the East Africa region. This has a negative impact on agricultural productivity, with potentially disastrous consequences in a country in which more than 80% of the population is engaged in subsistence agriculture. Harsher climatic conditions require offsetting by increased investments in both soil conservation and irrigation. However, without clear land rights, farmers are often reluctant to make such investments. In this context, GCCA funding was provided to support the implementation of an ambitious land registration programme.

GCCA's action programme
Geographical scope
Country groups
Initial GCCA/GCCA+ contribution
4,560,000.00 €
Specific objectives

Contribute to the implementation of the ‘Strategic Road Map for Land Tenure Reform’. This strategy aims to put in place a land tenure system that guarantees tenure security for all Rwandans and gives guidance to the necessary land reforms with a view to good management and rational use of national land resources.

By providing security of tenure, land registration gives landholders greater incentive to care for the land on which their rights are firmly protected. Furthermore, the certificate of title issued at registration is accompanied by land use conditions that landholders are obliged to comply with. These conditions are critical particularly in fragile areas such as wetlands and high relief areas.

Key achievements
  • 10.3 million land parcels registered by the end of December 2012.

  • 3.9 million land titles issued by the end of December 2012.

  • Aerial photography of almost 100% of Rwanda's territory completed by the end of 2012.

Main activities per result

All citizens can systematically bring land to registration.

The supported reforms aim to put in place an efficient, transparent and equitable system of land administration nationwide. Specific activities conducted with project support included the procurement of aerial ortho-photo base maps and distribution to districts; the recruitment of a land tenure regularisation support team; the implementation of a training programme for all levels; land tenure regularisation field work; and the registration and titling in all districts, with full development of districts plans and tenure arrangements.

Challenges and lessons learned (selected)
  • Technically, the amount of data/information to be saved is considerable and data must be available at decentralised and centralised levels. The high number of land parcels makes it even more necessary, considering the dynamic in property changes. Financially, the maintenance of such complex system is quite a commitment to fulfil.

  • The need for keeping all stakeholders informed about the process, its progress, implications and about the beneficiaries' rights is a challenge. Several actors including NGOs can take an active role in this matter, but the messages to be delivered must be strictly coordinated.

  • The land tenure regularisation process obviously is a cross-cutting issue and as soon as the process is initiated, coordination efforts with other sectors/Ministries must take place (agriculture, natural resources, education, justice, etc.).

Way forward (selected)

The GCCA budget support programme has now come to an end. The registration and titling process is scheduled to continue until December 2013, with system maintenance to be carried out on an ongoing basis. An impact evaluation study should be undertaken at the end of the programme.


"This land is completely mine now. It is an opportunity to develop it."

A beneficiary from Musanze District