Support project to the Government of Mozambique for the mainstreaming of climate change into policies and strategies and to adapt to climate change impact

At a glance

2011-06-01 to 2016-12-01
Completed programmes
Min. for the Coordination of Environmental Action (MICOA), Min. of Foreign Affairs of Denmark (DANIDA)
Total budget
47,00 M€
GCCA priority area(s)

Mozambique regularly experiences extreme weather events. Droughts occur every three to four years, in a country where most people depend on agriculture for their livelihoods. Many regional river basins converge in Mozambique, and flooding is a perennial threat, especially when coupled with tropical cyclones. The country urgently needs a coordinated approach to tackling climate change.

In January 2015, heavy rains resulted in severe flooding in the north and centre of the country causing deaths and substantial economic damage including to critical infrastructure. These heavy rains in the region also had a strong negative impact in the energy supply for large areas in the north of the country and several regions remain isolated as of early 2015 due to the collapse of roads and bridges.

GCCA's action programme
Geographical scope
Country groups
Initial GCCA/GCCA+ contribution
10,200,000.00 €

Overall objective

Support the government's efforts in tackling the adverse effects of climate change, with a special focus on the most vulnerable communities in the rural areas of the country.

Specific objective

Increase the capacity of the Government of Mozambique to adequately mainstream climate change and climate-proofing initiatives into its poverty alleviation and development strategies.


1. The institutional capacity and technical expertise of key government institutions is strengthened.

2. Information sharing and awareness campaigns are carried out, together with dedicated training courses.

3. Implementation of the national response to climate change (Environment Strategy for Sustainable Development, National Adaptation Programme of Action) is supported by putting into practice a number of pilot projects, mainly in the agrarian and agroforestry sectors.


The institutional capacity and technical expertise of key government institutions is strengthened.

This involves reviewing relevant sectoral development strategies to improve the mainstreaming of environmental and climate change themes. These reviews were to be set against the most recent legal and policy framework. Actions were also undertaken to strengthen MITADER's leadership and mandatory role as focal point in environmental affairs; and to improve the coordination and monitoring of both government- and donor-relevant interventions.

Other courses of action include strengthening the environmental monitoring system to adequately measure sector performance; promoting good governance practices; improving compliance with relevant legal and regulatory framework; and providing a clear reference for enhanced coordination and linkages between all government and non-state actors, at central, provincial and district level.

Information sharing and awareness campaigns were carried out, together with dedicated training courses.

This involves activities to increase the understanding of climate change issues amongst key stakeholders, including civil society and learning institutions at secondary and university level; as well as actions aimed at improving responsiveness to climate change amongst key development agents at all levels from central to local level. On-the-job training for relevant staff at the local level, and the identification of information networks to promote climate change awareness through the cross-dissemination of local knowledge, are also being undertaken.

Implementation of the national response to climate change (Environment Strategy for Sustainable Development, National Adaptation Programme of Action) was supported by putting into practice a number of pilot projects, mainly in the agrarian and agroforestry sectors.

Environment-related institutions were invited to conduct applied research and studies supporting the development of innovative solutions to climate change.

Actions were also undertaken to identify appropriate adjustment and coping strategies linked to land use in the rural environment, in support of the adaptation of traditional farming and livelihood systems to the changing climatic conditions in vulnerable areas.

Concrete adaptation measures were implemented in selected vulnerable areas to reduce the vulnerability of the local productive systems and improve resilience to climate change amongst target rural communities.

Achievements to date
  • An institutional performance study has been completed, followed by finalisation of a training needs assessment.
  • Phase II of the National Institute for Disaster Management (INGC)'s study on the impact of climate change has been completed (reports are available in EN and PT).
  • One of the flagship activities in the National Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Strategy 2013-2025 (ENAMMC) is the development of Local Adaptation Plans (PLA). The support to Ministry of Land, Agriculture and Rural Development (MITADER) and the ex-Ministry of Planning and Development (MPD) began in early 2013. A total of 10 staff members from the central level and 32 persons from the provincial departments of MITADER and ex-MPD and 35 district staff were trained in 4 separate training events on Climate Vulnerability Capacity Assessment and elaboration of Local Adaptation Plans with involvement of communities. In 2014 key staff members at the central and provincial level were trained in the use of "Theory of Change" in a Training of Trainers approach in order to assist the districts in developing their PLA. In parallel the team at central level consisting of staff from several institutions developed the Methodological Guideline on Elaboration of Local Adaptation Plans. In 2014 the use of this guideline was applied to support districts in preparing their PLA. Seventeen local adaptation plans (PLA) at district level have received support in 2014. By the end of 2014, 13 districts had a draft PLAs. The District of Guija was the first to approve its PLA. The preparation of eleven more LPAs were supported in 2015.
  • Seventeen local adaptation plans at district level have received support and are expected to begin implementation in 2015. Ten more local adaptation plans were supported in 2015.
  • MITADER has supported implementation of over a hundred of small to medium-scale activities which are carried out by provincial or district authorities in most vulnerable areas based on the ENMC approved in 2012.
  • In 2012, the Government of Mozambique (GoM) assumed a commitment towards the Green Economy. In October 2013 the Council of Ministers approved the Plan of Action for the Green Economy 2013/2014.
  • The "Strategic Environmental assessment of the Coastal Zone of Mozambique" was finalized in the first semester of 2013. It is considered as a key document for environmental management and climate change adaption.
  • The programme took a lead in the introduction of a monitoring system with a fully aligned performance based monitoring on realization of targets combined with monitoring of financial execution in relation to the achievements of these targets, linking planning with implementation and budget execution. The monitoring system provided a basis for monitoring cost effectiveness in implementation and budget discipline in relation to the use of funds as specified in the approved annual plans.
  • The National Institute for Disaster Risk Management (INGC) was a key beneficiary of this programme. During the last two years, the planning and monitoring process has been considerably strengthened with six provinces (out of 10) being covered. Key planning staff at the central and provincial level received training in planning, monitoring and evaluation.
  • Also, the programme supported data collection and mapping of areas at risk of droughts, floods, cyclones and earthquakes. Risks maps for 11 districts have been elaborated and data collection has been completed for another 6 districts. Furthermore, a topographical study has been carried out in part of the Zambezi Basin that aims at improving forecasting of the impacts of various magnitudes of floods. These activities enhanced the capacity of INGC and other institutions to plan better and reduce vulnerability to climate change.
  • The programme also supported the development of early warning systems in the Messalo Basin in the northern part of the country and in Chokwe town in the Limpopo Basin in the southern part of the country.

Activities implemented at provincial and district level on adaptation and risk management include:

  • Planting and rehabilitation of 229 ha of mangrove. An overall Action Plan for Mangrove Rehabilitation has been elaborated with support from the IUCN.
  • Installation of 105 rainwater harvesting facilities varying in size from 68 to 2500 m3.
  • Creation and revitalization of a large number local risk management committees of which 59 benefited from risk management kits that enable prevention of loss of life and possessions during floods.
  • Conservation agriculture and more drought resistant crops such as cassava and sweet potatoes were promoted by creating demonstration fields of a ½ to 1 ha each.
  • Two major excavated reservoirs for water storage in areas with water deficit were constructed.
  • A feasibility study and business plan have been carried out for creating artisanal production of marula oil for the cosmetic industry. Such production can potentially improve local income and job opportunities in very vulnerable semi-arid areas by using a local and abundant resource.

Challenges and lessons learned
  • The process of developing the national climate change strategy has highlighted the importance of allocating appropriate resources to support analysis and discussion between the various stakeholders involved in institutional arrangements associated with climate change actions.
  • The programme has enabled MITADER to implement environmental and climate adaption activities on the basis of a cross-sectoral, decentralised approach involving a range of sectors at provincial level and with an average of three districts in each province. Monitoring efforts must now focus on gathering relevant experience and providing recommendations that can lead to the necessary adjustments in procedures, implementing arrangements and the focus of activities. Lessons learned should be communicated across all relevant partners.

"We believe that we can change the challenges faced by our people into concrete actions to improve their living conditions by reducing their vulnerability to climate change."

Mrs Alcinda Abreu, Minister for the Coordination of Environmental Affairs.